Motivational Design

While the motivation of employees has been recognized as a major factor for successful implementation of knowledge management systems, most measures to influence motivation have concentrated on incentives, both in terms of monetary rewards and other extrinsically motivation schemes which are designed as top-down instruments. Research has shown that these can work under certain circumstances, but usually (particularly in genuine knowledge worker environments) are problematic, often short-term in their effects and sometimes even counter-productive. Web 2.0 has shown that under certain circumstances people are highly motivated to contribute and to share knowledge, a phenomenon which has stimulated further investigation into the subject like experiments on knowledge sharing behaviour from a psychological perspective. Little investigation has taken place for workplace settings where informal learning and the integration of learning and working are dominating elements: which barriers do we have to take into account there? How should supporting tools be designed for a workplace context?

As motivation is a wide and open field, the ethnographic studies have shown that it is more valuable to describe and address motivational barriers, rather than trying to decompose determinants of motivation as such. Those determinants rarely occur in isolation; real-world phenomena are complex mixtures so that the decomposition does not yield much added value. Barriers, however, and their systematizations allow for identification of different fields of intervention.

Within the MATURE project, a motivational model has been developed that identifies three different dimensions:


Carmen Wolf
The Trouble with Systemic Solution-oriented Self-E-Coaching. Emotions as Key Factors in Changing Patterns.
In: Holocher-Ertl, Teresa and Kunzmann, Christine and Müller, Lars and Rivera Pelayo, Verónica and Schmidt, Andreas P. and Wolf, Carmen (eds.): Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning (MATEL). Workshop-Proceedings of MATEL Workshop 2013-2014. 26., KIT Scientific Working Paper vol. 26, KIT, 2015, pp. 37-47

Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Christine Kunzmann, Lars Müller, Verónica Rivera Pelayo, Andreas P. Schmidt, Carmen Wolf
Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning (MATEL). Workshop-Proceedings of MATEL Workshop 2013-2014.
KIT Scientific Working Paper vol. 26, KIT, 2015


Christine Kunzmann, Patric Rieker, Andreas Schmidt
Exploring Motivational Aspects for Technology-Enhanced Informal Learning in the Construction Sector
In: 3rd International Workshop on Motivational & Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning, co-located with ECTEL 2013, 2013

Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Christine Kunzmann, Lars Müller, Verónica Rivera Pelayo, Andreas Schmidt
Motivational & Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning: Topics, Results, and Research Route
In: ECTEL 2013, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, 2013

Abstract Motivational and affective aspects have long been neglected in research and development of technology enhanced learning (TEL) solutions, but it is now increasingly recognized that they are key to acceptance and sustainable success. However, the consideration of these aspects still suffers from fragmented research activities that are in between established disciplines. We summarize the results from three editions of the EC-TEL workshop series MATEL, which has established a forum for interdisciplinary conversations and joint re-search activities. This includes an overview and systematization of current re-search and its findings as well as prioritized research challenges. The paper concludes with a research agenda that advances the inclusion of motivational and affective aspects into TEL from art to an engineering approach.

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzman, Simone Braun, Teresa Holocher-Ertl, Ulrike Cress, Athanasios Mazarakis, Lars Müller, Verónica Rivera Pelayo
International Workshops on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning 2011 and 2012 (MATEL)

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Barrieren in der Wissensentwicklung und -weitergabe. Analyseinstrumente und Strategien zur Überwindung
In: Laske, Stephan and Orthey, Astrid and Schmid, Michael J. (eds.): PersonalEntwickeln, Luchterhand, 2013, pp. 5.91/1-18

Abstract In diesem Beitrag erfahren Sie, warum die Berücksichtigung motivationaler, sozialer und kultureller Faktoren für die Wissensentwicklung von entscheidender Bedeutung ist, welche sich daraus ergebenden Barrieren von besonderer Bedeutung sind, wie sich diese Faktoren systematisch analysieren lassen, und wie sie sich durch geeignete Maßnahmen überwinden lassen.


Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Kaschig, Alexander Sandow, Ronald Maier
Knowledge Maturing: Creating Learning Rich Workplaces for Agile Organizations

Abstract The agility of organizations has become the critical success factor for competitiveness in a world characterized by an accelerating rate of change. Agility requires that companies and their employees together and mutually dependently learn and develop their competencies efficiently in order to improve productivity of knowledge work. As a reaction to failures of organisation-driven approaches to technology-enhanced learning and the success of community-driven approaches in the spirit of Web 2.0, we have recently seen a paradigm shift in technology support for learning towards more participatory approaches in which learners are seen as active contributors. Within enterprises, this new perspective brings together traditionally separated disciplines like e-learning, knowledge management, and human resources development, but also requires a fundamental change of the culture of the respective enterprise towards an enterprise 2.0, which is characterized by enhanced collaboration and a cultural of employee participation. These developments are at the heart of how individuals and companies value and deal with knowledge. To make sense it and to productively shape the change process, we need a new conceptual framework that is both well-grounded on extensive research and pratically relevant and proven through application in numerous projects. The Knowledge Maturing perspective is a novel approach that helps understanding the fundamental change, the barriers and disruptions in knowledge development, but also shows opportunities and gives guidance to make use of them.


John Cook, Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann, Simone Braun
The challenge of integrating motivational and affective aspects into the design of networks of practice
In: 2nd International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology Enhanced Learning (MATEL 11), ECTEL 2011, Palermo, Italy, 2011

Abstract In this position paper, we (i) set out the background, problems and questions involved in moving towards a design methodology for incorporating motivational and affective factors in networks of practice, (ii) define networks of practice, highlighting that motivational and affective factors are intertwined with a range of other complex issues, (iii) examine some of these aforementioned problems using a specific example from the MATURE IP ( called people tagging, and use this case (iv) to delineate the challenge of integrating motivational aspects into the design of networks of practice.

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Ethnographically Informed Studies as a Methodology for Motivation Aware Design Processes
In: 2nd International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology-Enhanced Learning, ECTEL 2011, Palermo, Italy, 2011

Abstract While motivational aspects have been recognized as important factors for IT support for learning, it has been difficult to integrate them into requirements engineering processes. We propose ethnographically informed studies as an effective means that has been successfully applied in two research projects as part of their design processes and discuss the remaining challenges.


Andrew Ravenscroft, Andreas Schmidt, John Cook
Designing for Motivation in TEL: Relevance, Meaning and Value in Context
In: Schmidt, Andreas and Braun, Simone and Cress, Ulrike and Holocher-Ertl, Teresa and Kunzmann, Christine and Mazarakis, Athanasios (eds.): First Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects in Technology-Enhanced Learning, ECTEL 2010, Barcelona, September 28, 2010, 2010

Abstract Given the increasingly pervasive and important role of the net in our everyday lives, along with the many practices it mediates and supports, it is becoming crucial that we consider the role of motivation in TEL. This will help us to ensure that our TEL innovations are adopted, and their related learning activities are favoured, supported and realised in the digital landscape - and not avoided because our focus lies elsewhere or there are simply too many other things to do. And yet, motivation is poorly understood and usually not considered in the design of TEL. In addressing this issue (of motivation) this paper will reflect on perspectives from Psychology, Serious Games and Social Software, before proposing some initial ideas for designing for motivation. The arising design ideas that have initially been applied to the development of Digital Dialogue Games are now being articulated within a larger scale EU Integrated Project called MATURE, that is particularly challenged to design informal learning and knowledge maturing in the Web 2.0 workplace.

Andreas Schmidt
Motivation, Affective Aspects, and Knowledge Maturing
In: 1st International Workshop on Motivational and Affective Aspects of Technology Enhanced Learning, 2010

Andreas Kaschig, Ronald Maier, Alexander Sandow, Mariangela Lazoi, Sally-Anne Barnes, Jenny Bimrose, Claire Bradley, Alan Brown, Christine Kunzmann, Athanasios Mazarakis, Andreas Schmidt
Knowledge Maturing Activities and Practices Fostering Organisational Learning: Results of an Empirical Study
In: Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice 5th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2010, Barcelona, Spain, September 28 - October 1, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 6383, Springer, 2010, pp. 151-166

Abstract Knowledge work is performed in all occupations and across all industries. The level of similarity of knowledge work allows for designing supporting tools that can be widely used. In this paper an activity-based perspective towards knowledge work is taken. Based on findings from a previous ethnographically-informed study, we identified valuable activities to be supported in order to increase knowledge maturing inside companies. The goal of this paper is to contribute to which knowledge maturing activities are deemed important, so that they can be supported by IT services. Quantitative and qualitative data have been collected in 126 organisations of different size, sector and knowledge intensity. Important feedback and issues emerged and need to be managed in order to support success in the knowledge maturing activities that allow improvement of organisational learning through the dissemination and application of the most appropriate knowledge.


Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt, Volker Braun, David Czech, Benjamin Fletschinger, Silke Kohler, Verena Lüber
Integrating Motivational Aspects into the Design of Informal Learning Support in Organizations
In: 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies, September 2-4, 2009, Graz, Austria, 2009, pp. 259-267

Abstract Motivational aspects in knowledge management have so far largely been considered from the perspective of designing and implementing incentives that influence the extrinsic motivation of employees to participate, contribute, share etc. This is increasingly considered problematic so that this contribution takes a more holistic viewpoint by analyzing and systematizing barriers that have an impact on the motivation to engage in knowledge maturing activities. Based on an ethnographic study and targeted semi-structured interviews, a model is presented that decomposes the motivational aspects. Furthermore, it is presented how motivational aspects can be incorporated into the design of learning support systems.