Reference Process for Competency-Oriented HRD

The reference process model divides the responsibilities and tasks of competency-oriented human resource development according to the St. Gallen management model: normative layer, strategic layer, and operational layer.

Core of this process model is the strategic layer, which focuses on the instrument of a competence catalog (as a formal ontology), specifying the vocabulary for talking about requirements and employee competencies. Additionally, on this layer job requirements are specified, which are based on experiences with job performance, ideally measured in the context of quality management. The normative layer mainly defines the goals (e.g., specialize in specific areas), which influence the relevant competencies. On the operational layer, competencies of employees are diagnosed based on observable job performance using the competency catalog as a vocabulary. In a comparison with the requirements specified for the job role, the competency gap can be determined. Training measures are selected, which have these competencies as objectives. After the participation of the employee, the learning effects can be measured (in the form of assessments within the training activity) and afterwards the effects on job performance can be evaluated, which can lead to an augmented competency profile for the employee.

This model is supposed to provide a reference for implementing it in companies. What is important is that it provides a closed loop, i.e., the changes in job performance are fed back into the competency definition and requirements profile creation process. The second important aspect is the mediating artefact of the competence ontology. By developing a shared understanding throughout the whole process, discussions are getting more productive and goal-oriented.

2010

Simone Braun, Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
People Tagging & Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management
In: Randall, David and Salembier, Pascal (eds.): From CSCW to Web2.0: European Developments in Collaborative Design Selected Papers from COOP08, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Springer, 2010

Abstract Competence Management approaches suggest promising instruments for more effective resource allocation, knowledge management, learning support, and human resource development in general. However, especially on the level of individual employees, such approaches have so far not been able to show sustain-able success on a larger scale. Piloting applications like expert finders have often failed in the long run because of incomplete and outdated data, apart from social and organizational barriers. To overcome these problems, we propose a collabora-tive competence management approach. In this approach, we combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with organizational top-down processes. We addressed this problem as a collaborative ontology construction problem of which the con-ceptual foundation is the Ontology Maturing Process Model. In order to realize the Ontology Maturing Process Model for competence management, we have built the AJAX-based semantic social bookmarking application SOBOLEO that offers task-embedded competence ontology development and an easy-to-use interface. Following evolutionary prototyping within the design-based research methodology we conducted two field experiments in parallel with the system development in order to test the approach of people tagging in general and to explore motivational and social aspects in particular.

2007

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann
Sustainable Competency-Oriented Human Resource Development with Ontology-Based Competency Catalogs
In: Cunningham, Miriam and Cunningham, Paul (eds.): Expanding the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies. Proceedings of E-Challenges 2007, IOS Press, 2007

Abstract Competency-oriented approaches are gaining ground in human resource development. Key technology to cope with the complexity of fine-grained approaches are ontologies. By having a formal semantics, many competency-related task can be partially automated on a technical level. In this paper, we want to show that ontology-based approaches also foster the sustainability of such approaches on an organizational level by providing connections between the operational and strategic level. We present a reference ontology and a reference process model which have been applied in a hospital case study.

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Kompetenzorientierte Personalentwicklung: Auf dem Wege zum Lernen bei Bedarf
ERP Management, vol. 2007, no. 1, 2007, pp. 38-41

Abstract Personalentwicklung als klassische Unternehmensfunktion hat in den letzten Jahren zunehmend ein Image-Problem bekommen. Im besten Fall wurde sie noch als Verwaltungs- und Organisationsabteilung für Mitarbeiterschulungen verstanden, im schlimmeren Fall als menschenfreundlicher Luxus begriffen, den man bei der nächsten Krise auf ein Minimum zurückfährt. Zudem sind andere Bereiche wie Wissensmanagement und Kompetenzmanagement entstanden, die sich ebenfalls mit dem individuellen und organisationalen Lernen und den Kerndomänen der Personalentwicklung beschäftigen, ohne dass sie unter deren Zuständigkeit fallen.

2006

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt, Friedbert Mager
Kompetenzen managen: Wie man Fort- und Weiterbildungen in der Krankenpflege gezielt und zukunftsorientiert plant.
krankenhaus umschau, vol. 75, no. 8, 2006, pp. 712-714

Andreas Schmidt, Christine Kunzmann, Ernst Biesalski
Systematische Personalentwicklung mit ontologiebasierten Kompetenzkatalogen: Konzepte, Erfahrungen, Visionen
In: Gronau, Norbert and Fröming, Jane and Schmid, Simone (eds.): Fachtagung Kompetenzmanagement - Schulung, Staffing und Anreizsysteme, Potsdam, 5.10.2006, GITO, 2006

Abstract Ontologiebasierten Kompetenzkatalogen kommt im Rahmen des Kompetenzmanagements eine Schlüsselrolle zu. Auf methodischer Ebene dienen sie dazu, Personalentwicklungsstrategien konstruktiver zu diskutieren sowie strategische und operative Ebene besser miteinander zu vernetzen. Auf technologischer Ebene kann derselbe Katalog bzw. eine unmittelbare Verfeinerung/Erweiterung zur (Teil-)Au-tomatisierung von Personalprozessen genutzt werden, um so kompetenzbasierte Personalentwicklung effizienter zu gestalten. Gezeigt wird dies an zwei Beispielen: dem integrierten Ansatz der DaimlerChrysler AG, Werk Wörth und dem Ansatz zur Bildungsbedarfsplanung und -steuerung am Städtischen Klinikum Karlsruhe. Abschließend soll ein Ausblick gegeben werden, wie Kompetenzkataloge auch zur Unterstützung des Lernens bei Bedarf (z.B. durch Generierung von individuellen Bildungsempfehlungen) am Arbeitsplatz genutzt werden können (am Beispiel des Forschungsprojektes Learning in Process).

Christine Kunzmann, Andreas Schmidt
Ontology-based Competence Management for Healthcare Training Planning - A Case Study
In: 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW 06), Graz, 2006

Abstract With the increased pressure towards economic efficiency, hospitals and other healthcare institutions need to reengineer their internal organization and processes. This challenges human resources development with increased efficiency of training in general. We have developed a competence management concept for training planning at a big German hospital with a special focus on critically analyzing the suitability of state-of-the-art ontology-based approaches for the area of nursery. Experiences from the case study show the general feasibility, but also crucial issues summarized in this paper.